List of Dates, A Supplement To
MALCOLM & DAN JOE (WW1)
§Jan 28 The last United States troops leave Cuba after being there since the Spanish-American War. (Apr 25Aug 12, 1898)
§Jun 29 The women's suffrage movement in Britain took a violent turn after WSPU leader Emmeline Pankhurst marched to Parliament to present a petition to Prime Minister Asquith. When Asquith declined to receive the delegation, Mrs. Pankhurst struck a police inspector. Outside of Parliament, hundreds of suffragettes confronted police officers and began smashing windows. Afterwards, 107 women and eight men were arrested. The right to vote was granted to some women in 1918. Universal suffrage was only achieved in 1928.
§Aug 05 The first public execution in Paris in 15 years attracted a large crowd despite being held at 4:30 a.m. with short notice. M. Duchemin, who had murdered his mother in 1906, was guillotined in front of the Sante Prison.
§United States patent No. 942,700 was granted for Bakelite ("Condensation product of phenol and formaldehyde and method of making the same"), the first synthetic plastic.
§The Briggs & Stratton Company began producing its first engines.
§Henry Ford introduced the first popular automobile, the "Model T," produced by assembly-line methods.
§An Austrian doctor, Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) was carrying out his research on human blood and determined that there were four different types; he also discovered the Rh factor. It was now determined that blood was transferable from one person to an another; this was to be a useful discovery just before the unfolding of the bloody conflagration which we have come to know as World War One.
§Nov 16 The American Tobacco Company was reorganized with approval of the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York. The corporation, which had held 92% of the market share of U.S. tobacco sales, split into four smaller entities: Lorillard Tobacco Company (15% share, Kool); R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (20%, maker of Camel cigarettes); Liggett & Myers (28%; Chesterfield, L & M); and a smaller American Tobacco (38%, Lucky Strike). New competition would come in 1919 from Philip Morris, Inc., most famous for Marlboro cigarettes.
§Agadir Crisis unfolded between Germany and France.
§Feb 29 - A secret treaty of alliance is entered into between Serbia and Bulgaria.
§Mar - Germany's Reichstag approved a bill to make the Imperial German Navy the greatest in the world by 1920, with construction of 60 large ships and 40 cruisers.
§Oct 08 - The First Balkan War broke-out when the League of Balkan nations (Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro) attacked the Ottoman Empire (a 600 year old area which includes modern day Turkey). (See Map)
§Jan 11 - The Paris intra-urban transit system went entirely to electric streetcars, as the last horse-drawn streetcar made its final run on the city's rails.
§Mar 16 - Demonstrators turned out near Paris, to protest a recent decision by French Army officials to require three years of military service.
§Mar 18 - Exactly 50 years after his 1863 selection, King George I of Greece was assassinated in Salonika while walking the streets of the city recently captured from Turkey.
§Mar 20 - Song Jiaoren (Sung Chiao-jen), the President of the Kuomingtang Party in the Republic of China, was assassinated being shot while waiting for a train in Shanghai.
§Apr 13 - Anarchist Rafael Sancho Alegre fired three shots at King Alfonso XIII of Spain as the King was riding through the streets of Madrid. It was the eighth attempt on the life of the King.
§Jun 16 - The Second Balkan War broke-out over the division of the spoils of the First Balkan War. (The Ottoman Empire lost virtually all of its possessions in the Balkans on account of the First Balkan War) The Second Balkan War ended when it was subsumed by the larger conflict known as the World War One.
§The Panama Canal was opened.
§Jun 28 - Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand.
§Jul 02 The German Kaiser announces that he will not attend the Archduke's funeral.
§Jul 5 A council is held at Potsdam, powerful leaders within Austria & Hungarian Empire and Germany meet to discuss possibilities of war with Serbia, Russia, and France. (See Map)
§Jul 25 - Austria-Hungary Empire severed diplomatic ties with Serbia and began to mobilize its own forces.
§Jul 28 - Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, though another fourteen months passed they were to do anything about it. Tsar Nicholas II of Russia orders a partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary.
§Jul 31 Russia orders full mobilization.
§Aug 01 - Germany declares war on Russia, following Russia's military mobilization in support of Serbia; Germany also begins mobilization. France orders general mobilization.
§Aug 02 German troops occupy Luxembourg in accordance with its pre-war plan. A secret treaty between Turkey and Germany secures Turkish neutrality. Germany issues a 12-hour ultimatum to Belgium to allow German passage into France.
§Aug 03 - Germany declares war on Russia's ally, France. Belgium declined to accept Germany's ultimatum.
§Aug 04 - German troops entered Belgium. Great Britain declared war on Germany, quickly followed by Canada doing the same.
§Aug 06 Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.
§Aug 07 - Lord Kitchener calls for 100,000 men to join the British Army.
§Aug 17Sep 2 The Battle of Tannenberg between the Russians and the Germans; the Russians lost mainly because the Germans made rapid movements of complete German corps by train.
§Aug 20 German forces occupy Brussels.
§Aug 22 - British Expeditionary Force arrived in France.
§Aug 23 Battle of Mons: The British Expeditionary Force sees its first major action.
§Sep - Paris under threat, such that the French government moved its seat to Bordeaux.
§Sep 04 London Agreement: No member of the Triple Entente (Britain, France, or Russia) may seek a separate peace with the Central Powers. (See Map)
§Sep 05 First Battle of the Marne: Northeast of Paris. A French and British counterattack at the Marne ends the German advance on Paris.
§Oct 03 25,000 Canadian troops depart for Europe.
§Oct 09 Belgium falls to German troops.
§Oct 15 - Battle of Ypres.
§Oct 16 - Canadian troops arrive in Britain. (Dan-Joe and Malcolm not in on it, yet.)
§Nov 05 Britain and France declare war on Turkey.
§Dec 02 Austrian-Hungarian forces occupy Belgrade, Serbia.
§Dec 18 Egypt becomes a British protectorate.
§Dec 19 The Battle of Kolubara ends, resulting in a decisive Serbian victory over Austria-Hungary.
§Dec 25 - Christmas Truce on the Western Front.
§Jan 01 The battleship HMS Formidable is sunk off Lyme Regis, Dorset, England, by a German U-Boat.
§Jan 19 German zeppelins bomb the cities of Great Yarmouth and King's Lynn in the United Kingdom for the first time, killing more than 20.
§Mar 10 - To the 12th, The Battle of Neuve Chapelle.
§Mar 18 - Allied naval attack on the Dardanelles.
§Apr 22 Start of Second Battle of Ypres. First large scale use of poison gas on the western Front by the Germans.
§Apr Turkey jumps into the war, declaring for the central powers and coming out against Russia, Britain and France.
§Apr 25 The Allies launch an attack on Gallipoli. A great number of New Zealanders and Australian (the forces collectively referred to as ANZAC) were baptized in blood and fire. Great losses were sustained: the Turks, probably 300,000; the Allies, 265,000.
§Apr 26 - The Italians sign a secret treaty at London to join the Allies.
§May 03 John McCrae writes "In Flanders Fields."
§May 07 A German U-Boat sinks the British liner, the Lusitania.
§May 09 Second Battle of Artois: German and French forces fight to a standstill.
§May 23 - Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.
§May 25 - Germany abandons Ypres offensive.
§May 31 - First Zeppelin raid on London.
§Jun 13 - 1,150 men of the 26th Battalion board the Caledonia to set sail for England. They arrived England on Jun 24. (This initial batch did not include Dan-Joe and Malcolm, as they had not even signed up, yet.)
§Jul 13 Malcolm signs up at Valcartier, P.Q.
§Aug 13 - Dan-Joe signs up at Sydney.
§Sep 11 - First tank demonstrated to British military leaders.
§Oct 15 Austria-Hungary invades the Kingdom of Serbia. Kingdom of Bulgaria enters the war, invading Kingdom of Serbia.
§Oct 28 Dan-Joe and Malcolm arrive at England on a troop ship from Canada.
§Oct The governments of Britain and France secretly agree to overtake the Middle-Eastern regions of the Ottoman Empire (mostly Syria and Iraq), and establish their own zones of influence.
§Dec 25 British and German forces, on their own, declare a Christmas truce, get out of the trenches and have a free-for-all kick-around football game in no-man's land.
§Jan - Both Malcolm and Dan-Joe at Camp Bramshott, a temporary army camp set up on Bramshott Common, Hampshire, England.
§Jan 29 Paris is bombed by German zeppelins for the first time.
§Feb 08 - Dan-Joe and Malcolm at "East-Sandling."
§Feb 11th - Dan Joe is hospitalized for 11 days on account of influenza.
§Feb 21 The German offensive at Verdun.
§Mar 15 - Dan-Joe & Malcolm (together) Embarked for France where they arrived the following day.
§Mar 18 - Dan-Joe & Malcolm went to join Unit. They arrived on the 25th. On the 26th they are in the field.
§May Great Britain, for the very first time in her history, compelled civilians to join the army.
§May 31/June 1 Battle of Jutland (Denmark): The Royal Navy and the German Navy battle to a draw.
§Jun 4th - Russian Brusilov Offensive.
§Jun 5th Kitchener, Secretary of State for War killed at sea while going to Russia.
§Jun 10-20 - Dan-Joe at "Royal Herbert HP." "GSW. left leg"(?) Wound healed, transferred to "Woodcote Park."
§Jun 20-July 2 - Dan-Joe at "Can. Con. Hosp - Discharged to "C.C.A.C.
§Jul 1 The allies open the Somme offensive.
§Sep The first tanks appeared in the Battle of the Somme on the British side.
§Sep 15-17 - The Battle for Courcelette
§Sep 28 - Malcolm "Killed in Action, Field."
§Sep 30th - Dan Joe is brought in, "Shell Shocked." On Oct 4th he returns to duty. (These dates may have been October 4th to 7th, or was it the 13th, or 14th; the records are a wee bit confusing.)
§Oct 29 - Dan-Joe "Admitted to 4 Field Ambulance Depot ("Shell Shock")
§Nov 07 - Dan-Joe at "Div Rest Station"
§Nov 16 - Dan-Joe "No 4 Can F'd Amb"
§Nov 18 Battle of the Somme: In France, British Expeditionary Force commander Douglas Haig calls off the battle, which started on July 1.
§Dec - The Allies meet at the Chantilly conference. It was at this conference that the Allies determined what their offensive would be in the coming year.
§Jan 16 - The Germans make promises to the Mexican government.
§Feb. - The February Revolution: Russia.
§Feb 01 Germany announces its U-boats will engage in unrestricted submarine warfare.
§Feb 03 The United States severs diplomatic relations with Germany.
§Mar 15 Three American merchant ships are sunk by German submarines.
§Apr 02 President Wilson addressed a special session of Congress. Four days later war was declared.
§May 18 - Selective military conscription was brought in by the United States.
§Apr 06 - The U.S. declares war on Germany.
§Apr Canadian troops at the Battle of Vimy Ridge.
§May 04/05 - Dan-Joe is hurt, again. "C.C.S." [Casualty Clearing Station] "To Field Amb." (?) "2 Australian. Gen. Wimereux"
§May 12 - Dan-Joe brought in by C.F.A. (Field Amb.) "Abscess Jaw. R."
§Jun 05/14 - Dan-Joe "Sick" Looks like his jaw again. At "1 Con Depot Boulogne." Brought there by "2 Aust. Gen Hosp. Wimereux"; "Fit to 3 Lo R Camp" (Jun 7); "L.O.S. "A" Detail" (Jun 9); Dan-Joe "To 2nd Entg. Bn."
§Jul 06 Arabian troops led by T. E. Lawrence capture Aqaba from the Turks.
§Jul 16/17 Russian troops mutiny and abandon the Austrian front.
§Jul 17 King George V of the United Kingdom issues a proclamation, stating that thenceforth the male line descendants of the British Royal Family will bear the surname Windsor.
§Aug 14 - Dan-Joe "To Unit" "Reverted to Ranks" "Field"
§Aug 18 - Dan-Joe "Rejoined" ...
§Aug 29 The Military Service Act is passed in the Canadian House of Commons, giving the Government of Canada the right to conscript men into the army.
§Sep 18 - Dan Joe granted a few days leave and spent them in England.
§Sep 23 - In Russia the Bolshevik party is formed.
§Oct 12 The biggest loss of life in a single day for New Zealand. Over 800 men and 45 officers were killed at the First Battle of Passchendaele, roughly 1 in 1000 of the nation's population at the time.
§Oct 26 - The Canadians at Passchendaele.
§Nov 06 Canadian forces take Passchendaele in Belgium.
§Nov 16 British troops occupy Tel Aviv and Jaffa in Palestine.
§Nov 20 Battle of Cambrai: British forces, using tanks, make early progress in an attack on German positions but are soon beaten back.
§Nov 28 The Bolsheviks offer peace terms to the Germans.
§Dec 06 - The Halifax Explosion.
§Dec 11 British troops take Jerusalem from the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Jerusalem.
§Jan 08 - President Wilson, in a message to Congress, sets down his "Fourteen Points."
§Feb/Mar - Dan-Joe is hospitalised on account of Scabies which put him in the hospital for weeks.
§Mar 03 Germany, Austria and Bolshevist Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending Russia's involvement in the war.
§Mar 13 - Dan-Joe sent back for duties after his bout of Scabies.
§Mar 21 - The Second Battle of the Somme begins: Major German offensive.
§Mar 29 - Foch appointed Allied Co-coordinator in France.
§Apr 20 - Dan-Joe "Rejoined Unit."
§Apr 21 Manfred Von Richthofen, "The Red Baron", WWI's most successful fighter pilot, is shot down and died.
§May 27 The Third Battle of the Aisne commences.
§May 18 - On Dan-Joe's post health record discloses he was exposed to "Poison Gas."
§Jun 01 The Battle for Belleau Wood begins.
§Jun 14 - Dan Joe was "Dangerously Wounded," neck and back. (Maybe the 17th) At "No 7 Cas Clg Stn" [causality clearing station]
§Jun 17 Earns another medal. His wounds heal but Daniel's tuberculosis is now evident.
§Jun 18 - Dan-Joe at "18 Gen Camiers" France - "18 (usa)"
§Jun 22 - Dan-Joe at "Central Mil. Eastbourne." Mentioned in one note: "Bramshott" - "Cambria."
§Jun 06 Dan-Joe was "admitted to St Lenards" at London - "seriously ill". One of the records show that he was at St Lenards from June 6th to Sep 20. The discovery of "Pulmonary Tuberculosis [TB] R. Lung" is made. (See Dan-Joe's Medical History.)
§Jul 16 The murder of the entire Russian royal family, the Romanov family.
§Aug 08 - An Allied counter offensive; Battle of Amiens. It was the first outright and irreversible defeat that the Germans had suffered in four years of fighting.
§Sep 20 - Dan-Joe transferred to Eastbourne Hospital. Admission note, "Wounds healed."
§Sep 24 - Dan-Joe is at CSH Lenham and is being assessed. There until Oct 14.
§Sep British armies and their Arab allies roll into Syria.
§Sep 28 - Germany considers calling for an armistice.
§Sep 29 Allied Forces break through the Hindenburg Line.
§Oct 14 Dan-Joe on a cot is put aboard a hospital ship headed for Halifax. ("place, R[?] Sratt" "CLB322")
§Oct 27 - Dan-Joe admitted to Pine Hill, Halifax; there until Nov 15.
§Oct 31 The Hungarian government terminates the personal union with Austria, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian empire.
§Nov 02/04 An armistice is negotiated.
§Nov 06 - Daniel at Pine Hill Hospital: "He is bed ridden and is much emaciated." He is being done in, by active tuberculosis.
§Nov 09 Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates
§Nov 11 WWI ends: The parties sign an armistice agreement. The guns on the western front fall silent.
§Nov 19 - After "3 years and 98 days," Dan-Joe Discharged from the army at Halifax, being -- "Medical Unfit." Note: "G.S.W. over left scapula," described as being 3" long; Conduct and character - "Good"
§Nov 20 - Dan-Joe transferred to "Kent San" where he spent the last year and half of his life.
§Jan 18 The Paris Peace Conference opens at Versailles, France. (Check 'net for number meetings and when held.)
§Jun 28 The Treaty of Versailles is signed, formally ending World War I.
§Nov 19 The Treaty of Versailles fails a critical ratification vote in the United States Senate. It was never to be ratified by the U.S.
§Keynes' book The Economic Consequences of the Peace is published in the UK. 1919, Xmas - Dan J. Morrison sends Xmas card (Open) "to sister Aggie," N.S. San., Kentville, N.S."
§May 17 French and Belgian troops leave the cities they have occupied in Germany.
§Jun 04 Treaty of Trianon: Peace is restored between the Allied Powers and Hungary. Hungary lost 72% of its territory.
§Jun 20 Dan-Joe dies at his home at Glace Bay at the age of 26.
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