Blupete's History of Nova Scotia

Significant Historical Happenings: 1745.

In Connection With: Bk. 1, Pt. 4, "First Siege of Louisbourg."


Quebec:
§Jan., 15th: The Marins and their forces begin their winter trek overland from Quebec for Acadia.

Boston:
§Jan., 25th (o.s.) The Massachusetts' legislature, by a slim majority, approves Governor Shirley's plan to attack Louisbourg.

Chignecto: (See #5 & #6 on map)
§March: The Marins, having arrived from Quebec, are now in Acadia waiting for orders from Louisbourg.

Antigua:
§March, 13th: Warren with three men-of-war set sail for Louisbourg.

Boston:
§March, 24th: The colonial fleet under Rous' convoy, set sail.

Canso: (See #13 on map)
§April, 1st: New Hampshire troops land.
§April, 4th: Massachusetts troops land.
§April, 9th: Pepperrell orders a fort to be built.
§April, 18th: The colonial fleet, the armed vessels, are having luck in capturing French vessels along the coast towards Louisbourg: laden with "rum, molasses and other good stores."
§April, 21st: A New England sloop was sent up the coast and to put her nose into Louisbourg Harbour; she found the harbour "full of ice."
§April, 21st: "Two sloops with 70 men sent to St. Peters ... Becket sailed for Bay Vert." (See map; Bay Verte is on the coast just to the right of #6; St. Peters is at #14.)
§April, 21st: Pomeroy observes that another captured French vessel is brought into Canso, "the sixth vessel that has been taken & brought into this harbour since we came into it."
§April, 22nd: The Eltham (Capt. Durrell) having "had wintered in Boston and now returning after acting as convoy to 'mast ships' from Piscataqua" [near Boston] arrives at Canso.
§April, 23rd: Warren's fleet hoves into view at Canso.
§April, 23rd: "The sloops return from St. Peters, they did nothing but burnt a few houses and brought away a small sloop, there being more French and Indians than expected."
§April, 25th: Having almost been caught by the 32 gun French frigate, Renommée, eight transports (500 men) and the Rhode Island sloop, the Tartar arrive at Canso.
§April, 29th: "Col. Jeremiah Moulton this day left with 270 men to attack St. Peter's: destroying that settlement."
§April, 29th: "This morning the fleet sailed from Canso to Louisbourg ..."

Garbarus Bay: (See just to the left of #15 on map, the large indentation.)
§April, 30th (Saturday): 100 vessels hove into view.
§April, 30th: But a 100 Frenchmen were there on the shores of Garbarus Bay to oppose the landing. A "smart engagement" ensued.
§April, 30th: That evening there was "Singing and Great Rejoicing" and the New Englanders were to sleep "in the open air." Violins and flutes were to be found among the songsters.
§April, 30th: Four very impressive English men-of-war parade back and forth at the mouth of the Louisbourg Harbour, threatening; but unable to make an entry and use their cannon due to the powerful Louisbourg batteries.

Louisbourg: (See #15 on map)
§May, 1/11: (o.s./n.s.), With a liberal dose of good luck, good weather, and good boatmanship, 2,000 colonials land at Gabarous Bay.
§May, 1st: The colonial army set up camp about 1½ or 2 miles from the town. A "detachment of 400 under cover of the hills" went to north-east and took possession of all the lands surrounding Louisbourg harbour and "burned all their houses." (See map.)
§May, 2/13: The French Council resolves to desert the Royal Battery.
§May, 5th: The New Englanders take the Grand Battery for their own.

Annapolis Royal: (See #1 on map)
§May, 5th: Marin's artillery start to fire upon on Fort Anne.

Louisbourg:
§May, 6th: "Began to haul the cannon across the morass." Coehorns placed within 700 yards of the wall."
§May, 6th: One of the four English men-of-war operating in the area was detached and sent to over the top end of Cape Breton Island to get at the settlement at St. Ann's and "destroyed what they could of the enemy." (St. Ann's is located at #17 on map)
§May, 7th: Warren comes ashore and consults with Pepperrell. "A summons was sent into the town and an answer returned ... the answer: the French king their master had great dependence on them, and that they would return no answer but from the mouth of their cannon."
§May, 8th: "The enemy [the French] made a sally to discover what we [the New Englanders] were about but were soon repulsed and retreated to the garrison."
§May, 10th: "Twenty of our men [English] straggling toward northeast harbour were set upon by a party of French and Indians. two only escaped and several killed and the rest after having surrendered themselves inhumanly butchered."
§May, 10th: Small boats are carried across the land from the shores of Garbarus Bay to the Grand Battery on the borders of Louisbourg Harbour with a view to launching an attack against the Island Battery; such an attack did not immediately proceed.
§May, 13th: "A French snow from Bordeaux" manages to evade Warren's fleet and gets into Louisbourg Harbor with supplies.
§May, 16th: The new fasine battery plays on the walls of Louisbourg with some considerable effect; "dismounted several of the cannon which the enemy had planted ..." The French are busy throwing up additional breastwork atop their walls and repositioning their cannon.
§May, 16th: Duchambon sends for Marin.
§May, 17th: "In the night raised another fasine battery within yards of the West Gate and hauled two 42 lb cannon from the Royal Battery and two 18 lb ..." Commanded by Joseph Sherburne it was to be known as the Sherburne battery.
§May, 17th: Through the night a party of 100 French "landed at the Northeast Harbour" and in the afternoon attacked a New England Battery which had been set up at the Lighthouse Point. The attack was "soon repulsed but few of them gained the town."
§May, 18th: "As many guns fired this day as I have drawed breaths."
§May, 18th: The British call on Duchambon to surrender.
§May, 19-20, 1745 (o.s.): The 64 gun French ship, Vigilant, is captured off of Louisbourg.
§May, 20th, 1745: Duchambon tries to rally his men to maybe make some sallies against the enemy, but with 1,300 men including 200 from the Royal Battery "we had all we could handle the main fortifications."
§May, 23rd: "Another attempt on the Island Battery under Colonel Noble and Colonel Gorham fell thru --
§May, 24th: Seven British men-of-war are now operating in the area.
§May, 24-5th: Warren sends men, supplies and small boats overland so that yet another attack might be mounted against the Island Battery.
§May, 25th: A fire is set (on purpose?) and the "woods burnt furiously and the fire came near our camps -- with much labor it was stopped." (Pomeroy's journal.)
§May, 26th: Another attack, the best organized one yet, is made against the Island Battery. The French are ready for them and the results prove to be disastrous for the New Englanders: 60 are killed and 116 taken prisoners.
§May, 27th: "Mist fog: This morning we found a great many of our men dead, some with their legs, arms and heads [off]. ... Ten of our men got ashore that were wounded."
§May, 27th: a French detachment in three shallops, lands at Grand Lorembec with an objective to dislodge the English at Lighthouse Point (Gorham's Rangers). The French are discovered and dispersed.
§May, 27th: "Twenty-five prisoners brought in from the Mira."
§May, 27th: A captured woman prisoner tells of how there is an army of French soldiers and Indians coming to the rescue of Louisbourg. The New Englanders strengthen their guard.
§May, 28th: "Thick foggy weather nothing remarkable."
§May, 29th: "None of the fleet in company." (Hector's Log)

Boston:
§May, 29th: "General election at Boston ..." (Our journalist observes, a melancholy one.)

Louisbourg:
§May, 29th: A New England soldier writes in his journal: "This day 400 of our men are gone to bury the dead. Ten of our company is gone. A fine pleasant day this is."
§May, 29th: "Seven men fall from the top yard arm of Captain John Rouse's snow, three of which were killed in a moment; the other fell into the water and received no great hurt."
§May, 30th: A scout returns to camp with an accounting of a skirmish. A party of 100 New Englanders were caught out by a contingent of 200 of French and Indians. The New Englanders being thus outnumbered 2 to 1, "fought upon a retreat." Six men killed on the spot and one died on the return home: "many wounded."
§May, 31st: "Little wind and foggy. All boats towing off shore." (Superbe's Log.)
§May, 31st: Seth Pomeroy writes in his journal: "People many of them are ill -- the reasons I think are plain and the ground is cold and wet ... our provisions is chiefly pork and bread without sauce, except a small matter of beans and pease. [The overall effect is to] set the people into fluxes [dysentery]."

Louisbourg:
§June, 1st: "Fleet in company." (Hector's Log.) "Delivered stores for the fleet." (Bien Aimé's Log.)
§June, 1st: "A scout sent to Mira."
§June, 2nd: "Cleared hold and laid a platform for prisoners." (Bien Aimé's Log.)
§June, 2nd: "A vessel arrived from Boston with stores of shell shot and powder." Among the supplies delivered from Boston are two mortars.
§June, 2nd: The battery at the Light House is strengthened.
§June, 3rd: The Superbe (Warren's flag ship) chased a French sloop with provisions which was run ashore at the light house. The men got ashore in their boat and all made their escape.
§June, 4th: The New Englanders are ordered to move tents and to pitch them closer together so that "they might fortify ourselves." The invading English colonials continue to be concerned that a large French force is coming to the rescue of Louisbourg.
§June, 5th: A New England soldier writes in his journal: "This morning a Frenchman came to us over the walls and he gives to us an account that 100 would turn the first opportunity. He says that they have 123 of our men prisoners in the city."
§June, 6th: The English military engineer, John Henry Bastide arrives from Annapolis.
§June, 7th: Pomeroy writes: "A fair day: This day we removed our tents. This was the third time that we have moved ... we have placed ourselves more compact together."
§June, 9th: A journal entry: "The two men that came out of the city give an account that many would get out if they had opportunity and they themselves were well pleased ..."
§June, 9th: The provincials dig trenches round about their encampment fearing that an attack might come from French forces (Marin) which they thought was coming overland to attack their rear.
§June, 9th: Pomeroy writes: "The two men that came out of the city give an account that many would get out if they had opportunity and they themselves were well pleased ..."
§June, 10th: Pepperrell is taken off shore and goes aboard the Superbe and, with Warren, a Council of War is had.
§June, 10th: With the Light House Battery having now been set up, it unleashes a crushing bombardment both on the Island Battery and on the town; the French send a white flag out onto the field.
§June, 11th: Four more men-of-war from England join Warren. There are now eleven British war ships.
§June, 11th: "This day being our king's accession day ... order given at all our batteries to fire smartly at the city."
§June, 11th: Letter written by Marquis de La Maisonfort, now a prisoner of the English, captain Vigilant, is sent under a flag of truce into the city.
§June, 13-15th: Great activity in preparing the vessels to run into Louisbourg Harbour. The ground forces are also getting ready to make a great rush at the walls.
§June, 15th: A New England soldier writes in his journal: "The whole army is called together to whom the commodore made an excellent speech." Warren tells the men that he waits for nothing but a fair wind."
§June, 15th: Another entry: "So about sunset there came out a flag - from the town they requested there might be a cessation of arms for a while that they might call a Council to agree upon some terms ..." The message was sent back that they had until eight o'clock the following morning.
§June, 16th: And, another: "By 12 o'clock ... stock of full cartridges shot in place gunners quartered denied -- matches lit ready but we hear their drums beat a parley and soon appeared a flag of truce ..."
§June, 17th: "Flag of truce came from Island Battery in order to capitulate. Sent Captain Durrell ashore as hostage. At 5 A.M. sent marines and officers ashore to take possession of Island Battery. English colours hoisted." (Superbe's Log.)
§June, 17th: A New England soldier writes in his journal: "All the English batteries fired in celebration. About three o'clock the Commodore came to anchor in the harbour and all our ships and all our small craft."
§June, 18th: A schooner is dispatched to Boston with the news of victory.
§June, 21st: The New Englanders are unhappy as they are not only denied the "right" to plunder; they are obliged to guard the French and their possessions!
§June, 28th: A New England soldier writes in his journal: "Three schooners and a small sloop taken this day" having come sailing into the harbour unsuspecting."
§June, 28th: "We moved our sick and Stores into the town ..." The colonial troops, however, continued to live outside of the walls. Some in the village "a mile north from the city."

Canso:
§June, 28th: "Capt. Donahews killed with eleven more by Indians up in the gut of Canso going ashore in a boat."

Louisbourg:
§July, 2nd: Seth Pomeroy writes in his journal: "French moving out and going on board. Our people coming in and taking possession of their houses."

Boston:
§July, 3rd: Boston hears of the victory at Louisbourg.

Louisbourg:
§July, 4th: The Lanceston having unloaded her Cannon (to be used within the city) sets sail for France with "three other transports which carried a great number of French gentlemen and ladies -- I see them take their leave of the city and their friends still left behind, in a very affecting manner.
§July, 5th: "There came in another transport of Men from New England." This was Col. John Choate with two companies of his 8th Mass. Regt.
§July, 5th: "Two men-of-war is gone out a cruising on coasts."
§July, 6th: Captain John Rous set sail for England.
§July, 6th (Sunday): Rev. Samuel Moody preaches. "Hebrew I.13" ".. make thine Enemies thy footstool" And what a "joy it was -- to see God worshipped where Anti Christ had." Moody also cautions the troops about swearing.
§July, 9th: "Eight schooners set sail for New England with prisoners this day."

Pennsylvania:
§July, 11th: The capitulation of Louisbourg is announced in to the Pennsylvania Council.

Louisbourg:
§July, 11th: A New England soldier writes in his journal: "This evening there was hot talk about a mob rising" (The New England volunteers, their job being done wanted to go home and help their families with the harvest. Also, they were denied the spoils of war.)
§July, 13th: Certain of the New England men embark to return to their homes.
§July, 17th: More New Englanders come to Louisbourg.
§July, 18th: A day of celebration and there is allowed "two sheep to a company and six gallons of wine.
§July, 21st: "The friars and priests being gone" the New Englanders are now conducting their own Sunday services in the chapel at the hospital.
§July, 24th: "Came in a prize which came from the East Indias exceeding rich ... vast quantities of pepper ... satins."
§July, 29th: The New England troops employed repairing the damage done at Louisbourg.
§July, 30th: "Another large East India Ship was taken ..."

Louisbourg:
§Aug., 2nd: "There was a prize brought in vastly rich which came from the south sea --"
§Aug., 9th: A New England soldier writes in his journal: "... saw a man whipped 39 stripes for robbing the grave of and stripping the corpse of a dead man of his linen."
§Aug., 16th: "Just at dusk came in the Hector, which brought His Excellency [Governor Shirley] -- and his Lady, the Commodore's Lady and many other gentlemen, and women etc."
§Aug., 24th: "... the whole army was called together and His Excellency made an excellent speech both to officers and soldiers ..."
§Aug., 31st: Tyng sets sail for New England.

Louisbourg:
§Sept., 1st: A New England soldier writes in his journal: "Sickness prevails and deaths multiply."
§Sept., 3rd: A vessel from Carolina headed to London comes into Louisbourg and intelligence is now had that this vessel fell in three weeks before with a French squadron consisting of seven men-of-war. This raises speculation that the English who are now holding Louisbourg may have to fight off a counter attack.
§Sept., 4th: "... a small schooner and sloop sailed to cruise of Scaterie point to give notice of any large vessel appearing."
§Sept., 6th: A party of thirty men, under Capt. John Shaw is sent to the Mira to find French prisoners that had escaped.
§Sept., 13th: A schooner comes into Louisbourg with intelligence. Nothing is heard of the French squadron; the "Acadians were quiet."
§Sept., 16th: "A great tendency to a general mutiny amongst the soldiers ..."
§Sept., 18th: "Beat to arms, the Governor made a speech to each to each regiment tells them that he has sent to New York and Philadelphia for clothing that their wages should be eight pounds a month that etc. etc." The speech had a good effect; and, afterwards, "the Governor and Commodore each gave 2 hogsheads of rum."
§Sept., 23rd: Capt. John Rouse arrived in "19 days from England." The news is that England was all astir and celebrating the capture of Louisbourg. It is with the arrival of Rouse that the news is heard that Warren is to be made Rear Admiral of the Blue; Pepperrell, a baronet.
§Sept., 24th: "Colonel Gorham returned from the Bay of Vert every thing quiet at Nova Scotia."
§Sept., 30th: "Rous sailed upon a cruise to St. Lawrence River to get what intelligence he could."


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