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GO TO >>>>> The Historical Essay, "Scottish Immigration Into Nova Scotia"


FN1 Scottish Immigration A "Canadian Boat Song," from the cover of Dunn's work.

FN2 Scottish Immigration History of England, as quoted by OED, i. I. 66.

FN3 Scottish Immigration As quoted by Trevelyan, England Under Queen Anne, vol. 2, p. 216.

FN4 Scottish Immigration In a sense, it was an astonishing moment of freedom in the world's history. A person, without passport or papers, health certificate or any other documentation -- without luggage for that matter -- could plunk down £10 at a shipping counter and go aboard an ocean going vessel. He likely got nothing but water on board, in which event, he had to provide food for himself and his family for the voyage. Once arriving at his destination, no one asked the immigrant who he was or where he was going. He could then, just vanished into the new society. (See Johnson, p. 204.)

FN5 Scottish Immigration There did occur during the middle of the 19th century, a group of Scottish people from St. Ann's, Cape Breton, who immigrated to New Zealand: the Highlanders of Waipu.

FN6 Scottish Immigration "Indeed the population on the western coast, instead of showing decreases associated with clearance, grew by leaps and bounds in the second half of the eighteenth century." (Bumsted, p 29.)

FN7 Scottish Immigration There was probably more than one reason that the Roman emperor, Hadrian ordered the wall to be built. It is thought that it was impossible to go into the highlands and fight these wild people; easier just to seal the country off.

FN8 Scottish Immigration English Social History, p. 446.

FN9 Scottish Immigration Actually the English attempt to control Scotland first occurred in 1707, when there occurred the union of England and Scotland. This union brought on the hated English custom-house officials. "There irritating inflexibility, their belief that their own ways were the only ways, their self conscious efficiency and rectitude, their contempt for poverty and dislike of dirt angered the Scots [just] as these attitudes have angered many other races since." The custom house became to the Eighteenth-Century Scot the symbol of a foreign oppression. These new "English" duties meant that French wine and brandy were to cost five to eight times what they had formerly had been . Smuggling became an industry in Scotland with "night-birds" making their runs into the coasts laden with French goods. (See, Trevelyan, England Under Queen Anne, vol. 2, p. 335.)

FN10 Scottish Immigration Prebble, p. 13. Prebble continued at p. 16, "This hatred [the Lowlander had for the Highlander] was to persist until Walter Scott and his imitators took the Highlander out of the environment, disinfected him, dressed him in romance, and made him respectable enough to be a gun-bearer for an English sportsman, a servant to the Queen, or a bayonet-carrier for imperialism." Scott in his popular histories did depict, particularly in Tales of a Grandfather "the life of the clansman as one of perpetual feud and slaughter." (Dunn, p.6.) There are two other novels written by Scott, The Black Dwarf and The Bride of Lammermoor which could be most profitably read for a better understanding of the times (c.1708) when the country was alive with political conspiracies revolving around the Jacobites; the non-unionists; new duties and smugglers; French invasions; and, English elections.

FN11 Scottish Immigration Navy Records, Vol. 118, 1973, pp. 293-4.

FN12 Scottish Immigration "The Highland immigrations from each particular district of Scotland settled in groups together when they came to Cape Breton. Thus, Barra-men settled around Iona; Lewis-men settled around St. Ann's Bay; North Uist people around Mira Ferry; South Uist people, around Grand Mira ..." (Dunn, p. 113.)

FN13 Scottish Immigration As confirmed at http://gaelstream.stfx.ca : 06/11/2009

FN14 Scottish Immigration As no one on either side of the Atlantic kept records, it can only be a guess as to how many Scottish people in total immigrated to North America.

FN15 Scottish Immigration Harvey, "Scottish Immigration to Cape Breton," Dalhousie Review, Vol. 21 (1941), No. 3, p. 313; and see Macdonald, "West Highland immigrations in Eastern Nova Scotia," NSHS; Vol #32 (1959), p. 10; and see Canadian History Identifying the Highland Scots: Nineteenth century immigrants in Nova Scotia, by A. M. Austin, http://www.electricscotland.com/History/canada/highland_scotsns.htm : 18/11/2009 "These were the years of 'The Great Emigration.' More generally, "in 1831, 58,000 people left Britain for Canada, and in the following year the figure was 66,000." [Prebble, The Highland Clearances (1963) (Penguin), p. 196.] Richard Brown, in his history, wrote that from 1802 "the tide of immigrant gathered strength as it advanced, until it reached its highest point in 1817, when it began gradually to decline. The last immigrant ship arrived in 1828. All the best lands fronting on the lakes, rivers, and sea-coast, were taken up previous to the year 1820; since that period the lands in the rear of front lots have been occupied by the later immigrants, who are in consequence distinguished by the name of 'Backlanders.'" (A History of the Island of Cape Breton (1869) (Belleville: Mika, 1979), p. 425.)

FN16 Scottish Immigration English Social History, p. 376. Large pastures in these big farms allowed for the raising of crops such that cattle and sheep could be kept through the winter. "... for the first time since mankind took to farming, the wholesale slaughter of stock at the end of autumn ceased. Salted meat was replaced by fresh beef and mutton." (P.377.)

FN17 Scottish Immigration Woodward, p. 9. For a treatment of enclosures in Scotland, and both the good and the bad that came from it, see: Ashton, pp. 38-47. And for the changes that occurred in agriculture during the 18th century, see Trevelyan, English Social History, p. 374 and on.

FN18 Scottish Immigration Bumsted, pp. 39-40.

FN19 Scottish Immigration Prebble, p. 248.

FN20 Scottish Immigration "The kelp industry ... collapsed when higher quality Spanish alkalis could once again be imported after [the 23 year Napoleonic War] ... so that where in 1810 kelp paid £20 a ton, in 1834 that price had shrunk to £3." (Hill, p. 87.)

FN21 Scottish Immigration Prebble, p. 258.

FN22 Scottish Immigration Prebble, p. 260.

FN23 Scottish Immigration Trevelyan, England Under Queen Anne, vol. 2, pp. 190-1.

FN24 Scottish Immigration See Harvey, "Scottish Immigration to Cape Breton," Dalhousie Review, Vol. 21 (1941), No. 3; and see, Hunter's A Dance Called America (1994) (Mainstream Publishing, 1998). See also, http://www.rootsweb.com/~pictou/passlist.htm : 21/11/2009 And see too, http://www.moidart.org.uk/datasets/emigns.htm : 16/11/2009

FN25 Scottish Immigration Prebble, p. 192.

FN26 Scottish Immigration The only encouragement, by 1813, was to offer a grant of land, nothing else. (Sherbrooke to Bathurst, d. June 10th, 1813, at Halifax; Ells, p. 290.) The Scottish Immigration to Cape Breton was "unassisted." (Harvey, p. 313.)

FN27 Scottish Immigration Martell, p. 7. The largest number (22,000) came from Scotland; 13,000 from Ireland; the rest from England and Wales.

FN28 Scottish Immigration At p. 57.

FN29 Scottish Immigration At p. 143.

FN30 Scottish Immigration Brown, p. 444.

FN31 Scottish Immigration Brown, p. 444.

FN32 Scottish Immigration Burroughs, p. 99. "In 1790, for reasons which do not appear, all further grants of land were forbidden, and this prohibition remained in force til 1808. ... In 1827 the system of sale was introduced in this [Nova Scotia] colony." (See Lord Durham's Report; Reprint of 1912 edition, Oxford University Press; (New York: Kelley, 1970), Appendix B, Vol. #3, pp. 62-3.)

FN33 Scottish Immigration One reason, is that the British government would not permit settlements (or at least discourage them) because the whole island was to be treated as a timber reserve for the Royal Navy.

FN34 Scottish Immigration Harvey, p. 315; Hunter, p. 122.

FN35 Scottish Immigration Lord Thomas Douglas Selkirk (1771-1820).

FN36 Scottish Immigration A number of years later, Selkirk brought settlers to the Red River Valley, Manitoba.

FN37 Scottish Immigration Hunter, p. 125.

FN38 Scottish Immigration Harvey, p. 315; Hunter, p. 122.

FN39 Scottish Immigration In 1824 the province, other than Cape Breton and Halifax, was divided into three districts: the eastern, "the county of Sydney, the districts of Pictou and Colchester, and the county of Cumberland"; the middle, "the counties of Hants, Kings, Lunenburg and Queens"; and the western, "the counties of Annapolis and Shelburne." Each district was to have a court with a judge, a traveling judge.

FN40 Scottish Immigration At p. 123.

FN41 Scottish Immigration Harvey, p. 323.

FN42 Scottish Immigration At p. 27.

FN43 Scottish Immigration As quoted by Dunn, p. 24.

FN44 Scottish Immigration At p. 154-7.

FN45 Scottish Immigration Hunter, p. 146.

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Peter Landry
2011