Blupete's History of Nova Scotia

Key Events in the History of Nova Scotia: 1813.


§Great Britain and the United States have been, at this point, in January of 1813, six months at war: Nova Scotia is British territory.
§"13 Jan'y. 21 American prizes were condemned in the vice admiralty court at Halifax." (Murdoch.) And, by order of the Court of Vice Admiralty, on 7 April, at 12:00 noon, some 30 odd "ships and vessels, with their cargoes" were sold by auction at Halifax.
§"There were 172 prize vessels lying at Bermuda at this time. Admiral Warren declared a blockade of the Chesapeake and the Delaware ..." (Murdoch.)
§February 7th: "Arrived HMS Tartartus [16 guns] Capt. Pascoe 12 days from Bermuda with the English November and December mails with the glorious news from Russia." (John Liddell, a merchant at Halifax, in his diary.) It was during this winter that the news came of Napoleon's retreat from Moscow and his struggle to retain his grip of central Europe.
§Though a state of war existed between the Americans and the British, little concern was expressed about possible American land attacks. No troops were sent to Nova Scotia on account of it, "on the contrary, Sir George Prevost ordered a regiment to be sent hence to Quebec by land in this winter." (Murdoch.)
§February 10th, 1813: Both the Liverpool Packet and the Retaliation receive a letter of marque.
§February 15th, 1813: The Sir John Sherbrooke receives a letter of marque.
§February: The 104th Regiment of Foot (The New Brunswick Regiment) traveled overland up the frozen St. John River in order to reenforce the Upper Canadian borders.
§March 22nd: "Arrived HMS Minerva [32 guns] Capt. Hawkins 10 days from Bermuda with the English January mail, and specie on board 10 days from Bermuda, HMS La Hogue [74 guns] and Valiant [74 guns] convoyed her safe into the harbour & then stood out to sea." (John Liddell.)
§April 2nd: In a letter to Bathurst, Sherbrooke reported that he has "made arrangements to bring the remainder of the 98th Reg't to Halifax, from which port they will depart for Canada as soon as the 64th shall arrive at Bermuda."
§April 27th, 1813, American forces raid York (Toronto) looting and burning buildings, including the governor's house and the provincial legislative building.
§May 4th: In a letter to Bathurst, Sherbrooke reported that there was a "change in military arrangements whereby the 104th Regt. was sent to Canada."
§May 5th: "The February packet has not arrived in Halifax, although it reached Bermuda at least a month ago. It is of great detriment to His Majesty's service and to the inhabitants of Nova Scotia having no communication with England during the winter. Sir George Prevost's [now in charge in Upper Canada] despatches are still awaiting transport."
§May 12th, 20 thousand acres of land granted to King's College at Windsor.
§May 14th: In a letter to Bathurst, Sherbrooke "describes and explains the military arrangements he has made and hopes they will be satisfactory. The Nova Scotia defences are reduced to a very low state. This is made the more alarming by the news of an American victory at York [Toronto]."
§May 14th: "Arrived HMS Armide [38 guns] Capt. Sir John J Trowbridge [Edward Thomas] with three store ships under her convoy from Cork ..." (John Liddell.)
§May 17th: "Arrived HMS Plantagenet [74 guns] Capt. [Robert] Lloyd 47 days from Cadiz with the Transport Ships [named] ... having on board Wattevilles Regt of Germans of 1446." (John Liddell.)
§May 20th: "Arrived HMS Crescent Capt. Quilliam & H.M. Brigs Conflict [12 guns] and Boxer with a fleet of merchant men from Cork 35 days." (John Liddell.)
§May 22nd: In a letter to Bathurst, Sherbrooke advised that the troops have arrived convoyed by "one of the ships of the Navy, en route to Quebec. Hearing that they were in danger of being intercepted by the Americans," Sherbrooke applied to the Admiral for more protection for them, which was granted."
§May 22nd: "Sailed HMS Minerva, [32 guns] Nymph [38 guns] & Crescent [38 guns] with a convoy of Transports having on board Wattevilles Regt of Germans and 2nd battn of 89th Regt for Quebec --" (John Liddell.)
§May 27th: In a letter to Bathurst, Sherbrooke advised that he "has detained the packet, in hopes of receiving an official account of the late operations in Canada, but none has arrived." He has no word from Bermuda and the 64th Regt. has not arrived.
§May 30th: "Arrived Transports from Martinique with part of the 13th & 64th Regts on board." (John Liddell.)
§June 1st: "Arrived HM Brig Rifleman [18 guns] with several Transports having on board the remainder of the 13th & 64th Regts from Martinique ..." (John Liddell.)
§June 6th: "Arrived [at Halifax] HMS Shannon Capt Broke with the US Frigate Chesapeake Capt Lawrence her prize." (John Liddell.) Though in my larger history I shall give details, here is a short contemporary synopsis, John Liddell: "On the 1st Int. the Chesapeake was captured by the Shannon off Boston Light after a Sanguinary action of 11 minutes, on board the Shannon the 1st Lieut. Watt, Purser Aldham Capts Clerk, Dunn & 23 seamen Killed -- Capt Broke was severely wounded, & 57 seamen. On board the Chesapeake there were about 70 Killed & 100 wounded amongst the former Capt Lawrence & latter 1st Lieut Laidlaw severely by 5 wounds -- Capt Broke was cut by a sabre in the head & had a ball through his arm & she was carried by boarding, the Capt being amongst the first on board."
§June 11th: In a letter to Bathurst, Sherbrooke advised of the arrival at Halifax of the 13th and 64th Regiments. (Then the same thing on August 7th, in a letter to Bathurst, Sherbrooke advised of the arrival at Halifax of the 13th and 64th Regiments?)
§June 11th: "Sailed the HM Brig Rifleman for Quebec with the 13th Regt also the convoys for N Brunswick & Labrador." (John Liddell.)
§June 25th to the 27th: There were letters between Wm. Sabatier and Capt. R. D. Oliver, Senior Officer of the navy at Halifax, on the subject of convoys for the trade to the West Indies and England.
§June 25th: "Sailed the HMS La Hogue, Capt Capel on a cruise." (John Liddell.) [Cruise, not convoy; offensive work vers defensive work; prize money vers, no prize money. Liddell knew the difference between the words "convoy" and "cruise" and used them concisely and repeatedly.]
§June 27th, 1813: "The American privateer Young Teazer, having been chased into Mahone Bay, one of the crew blew her up, six only out of thirty-six saved; another account says six out of one hundred." (Haliburton.)
§June 29th: "Sailed HM Brigs Sylph and Wasp with the trade for the West Indies." (John Liddell.)
§Meanwhile, in Europe: During forty days in May and June, the British troops drove the French armies over the Pyrenees and out of Spain; Napoleon's back was broken by the military and diplomatic actions of Wellington and Castlereagh.
§August 6th: "Arrived HMS Majestic Rear Admiral Griffiths, with the Abundance store Ship the Brig Commerce with ordnance Stores, the Brig Emeline with recruits all under convoy from Cork.--" (John Liddell.)
§August 10th: "Arrived American Brig Henry Capt Crowningshield a cartel from Boston a Cartel to solicit the body of Capt. Lawrence late of the Chesapeake." (John Liddell.)
§September 6th: "Sailed HMS Narcissus with 200 sailing for the Lake Navy in Canada." (John Liddell.)
§10 September: The American squadron, under Perry, captures all of the British ships on Lake Erie.
§17 September: Admiral Sir John Borlase (1753-1822) brings his fleet into Halifax after an eight days voyage from the Chesapeake. This was a large and heavily armed British fleet, in addition to the large crews these sailing vessels had aboard battalions of marines.
§Commerce in the colony continues, it seems to be based on the export of boards, planks, staves, dry fish, smoked herrings and fish oil.
§September 30th: "Arrived HMS Albion Capt Devonshire from England [with at least eight vessels in convoy; named]." (John Liddell.)
§October 2nd: "Sailed HMS Success, Joy, [32 Guns, though apparently she was en flute], Nemesis [28 guns] with the 2nd Batt. R Marines on board, under the Command of Sir S. Beckwith for Quebec." (John Liddell.) This was Sir Thomas Sydney Beckwith (1772-1831).
§October 9th: "Sailed HMS Diadem [64 guns] & Diomede [50 guns] & the Transport Brig with the 2nd Battn. of Royal marines on Board for Quebec." (John Liddell.)
§October 23rd: "Arrived HMS Endymion [50 guns] 46 days from Cork [with several ships under her convoy; named]." (John Liddell.)
§November: The 18 gun, H.M.S. Sloop, Atalante, on coming into Halifax Harbour ran up on "The Sisters" off the eastern ledge off Sambro Island. Though she sunk within minutes, all hands were able to get off and brought safely into Halifax Harbour.
§November 12th, Halifax: A hurricane came in from the southeast and struck at "about dead low water," with its "utmost fury." Murdoch named the larger vessels of the over 100 vessels that were damaged -- 100 sailing vessels, Halifax was a busy port. The vessels involved were big British naval ships, merchant vessels, schooners, brigs, transports, sloops and shallops.
§November 16th: "Arrived HMS Diomede, Capt Fabian; Joy, Capt Kinsman; and Mariner, Capt Russell -- from Quebec 16 days." (John Liddell.)
§November 21st: "Sailed for England HMS Poictiers, Diomede, Diomede, Nemesis & Mariner." (John Liddell.)
§Walter Bromley, who had previously been a captain and paymaster of the 23rd regiment, "commenced the establishment of a school, on what was termed the Lancaster system." (Murdoch.) The Lancastrian system used the elder scholars to teach what they had already learnt to the younger pupils.

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